Subject: ELA (English Language Arts), ESL/ELL (English Language Learning)

Lesson Length: 30 - 45 mins

Topic: Cause and Effect Signal Words

Grade Level: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

Standards / Framework:

Brief Description: Students will learn about cause and effect words and use them in their own writing.

Know Before You Start: Use this lesson to emphasize the signal words that are used to indicate a cause or effect.


  • Read and discuss the first two panels of the sample comic.
  • Review the meanings of the words effect (what happened), and cause (what made it happen.)


  • Have students read the last two panels independently. 

  • In writing or out loud, ask students to identify the words that signal cause or effect. Use sentence stems as needed.

    • The word ____ tells me the cause.

    • The word ____ tells me the effect.

  • Create a class T-chart of words that signal cause and effect. Display this as a reference. 

  • Have students create their own comic illustrating a cause and effect.


  • Review the signal words for cause and effect. Have students look for these signal words while they are reading to help them understand.


  • Allow students to use the speech-to-text feature.
  • Allow students to use the voiceover feature to read their comics aloud.
  • Allow students to work in pairs or groups as needed.
  • Adapt the sentences to be more or less complex as needed.